Clinical findings and treatments of granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (Avellino corneal dystrophy): A review of the literature

Kyung Eun Han, Tae Im Kim, Woo Suk Chung, Seung Il Choi, Bong Yoon Kim, Eung Kweon Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Objectives: To review the literature about clinical findings and treatments of granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2). Methods: Various literatures on clinical findings, exacerbations after refractive corneal surgery, and treatment modalities of GCD2 were reviewed. Results: GCD2 is an autosomal dominant disease. Mutation of transforming growth factor β-induced gene, TGFBI, or keratoepithelin gene in human chromosome 5 (5q31) is the key pathogenic process in patient with GCD2. Corneal trauma activates TGFBI and then it overproduces transforming growth factor β-induced gene protein (TGFBIp), which is main component of the corneal opacity. Refractive corneal surgery is a popular procedure to correct refractive error worldwide. However, several cases about exacerbation of GCD2 after corneal refractive surgery such as photorefractive keratectomy, laser in situ keratomileusis, and laser epithelial keratomileusis have been reported. The opacities deteriorate patient's best-corrected visual acuity. Recurrence-free interval varies many factors such as the type of procedure the patient had received and the genotype of the patient. To treat the opacities in GCD2, phototherapeutic keratectomy, lamellar keratoplasty, deep lamellar keratoplasty, and penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) were used. However, the recurrence is still an unsolved problem. Conclusions: Perfect treatment of exacerbation after corneal surface ablation does not exist until now. To prevent exacerbation, refractive surgeons must do a careful preoperative examination of candidates in refractive surgeries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)296-299
Number of pages4
JournalEye and Contact Lens
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2010


  • Avellino corneal dystrophy
  • Exacerbation
  • Granular corneal dystrophy type 2
  • Surface ablation


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