The purpose of this randomized clinical trial is to evaluate the effect of eyelid hygiene on subjective symptoms, anterior blepharitis, and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) after cataract surgery. Subjects with obstructive MGD who underwent cataract surgery were randomly divided into two groups. In the eyelid hygiene group, eyelid hygiene was performed twice a day for 10 days from 3 days before to 1 week after cataract surgery. The control group did not perform eyelid hygiene. A subjective symptom questionnaire of SPEED, anterior blepharitis grade, and meibum quality and quantity was evaluated at baseline and at postoperative 1 and 4 weeks. The eyelid hygiene group (n = 36) showed decreased SPEED score after cataract surgery and the control group (n = 33) did not. Anterior blepharitis grade was worse 1 week after surgery in the control group but not in the eyelid hygiene group. The control group had significantly decreased meibum quality and quantity in both the upper and lower eyelids after cataract surgery, but the eyelid hygiene group did not. Eyelid hygiene before/after cataract surgery improved postoperative subjective symptoms and prevented postoperative exacerbation of anterior blepharitis and MGD. Thus, perioperative eyelid hygiene is recommended for patients with obstructive MGD who undergo cataract surgery.