Clinical adaptation of synthetic MRI-based whole brain volume segmentation in children at 3 T: comparison with modified SPM segmentation methods

So Mi Lee, Eunji Kim, Sun Kyoung You, Hyun Hae Cho, Moon Jung Hwang, Myong Hun Hahm, Seung Hyun Cho, Won Hwa Kim, Hye Jung Kim, Kyung Min Shin, Byunggeon Park, Yongmin Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Purpose: To validate the use of synthetic magnetic resonance imaging (SyMRI) volumetry by comparing with child-optimized SPM 12 volumetry in 3 T pediatric neuroimaging. Methods: In total, 106 children aged 4.7–18.7 years who underwent both synthetic and 3D T1-weighted imaging and had no abnormal imaging/neurologic findings were included for the SyMRI vs. SPM T1-only segmentation (SPM T1). Forty of the 106 children who underwent an additional 3D T2-weighted imaging were included for the SyMRI vs. SPM multispectral segmentation (SPM multi). SPM segmentation using an age-appropriate atlas and inverse-transforming template-space intracranial mask was compared with SyMRI segmentation. Volume differences between SyMRI and SPM T1 were plotted against age to evaluate the influence of age on volume difference. Results: Measurements derived from SyMRI and two SPM methods showed excellent agreements and strong correlations except for the CSF volume (CSFV) (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.87–0.98; r = 0.78–0.96; relative volume difference other than CSFV = 6.8–18.5% [SyMRI vs. SPM T1] and 11.3–22.7% [SyMRI vs. SPM multi]). Dice coefficients of all brain tissues (except CSF) were in the range 0.78–0.91. The Bland–Altman plot and age-related volume difference change suggested that the volume differences between the two methods were influenced by the volume of each brain tissue and subject’s age (p < 0.05). Conclusion: SyMRI and SPM segmentation results were consistent except for CSFV, which supports routine clinical use of SyMRI-based volumetry in pediatric neuroimaging. However, caution should be taken in the interpretation of the CSF segmentation results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)381-392
Number of pages12
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.


  • Brain segmentation
  • Children
  • Multispectral segmentation
  • SPM
  • Synthetic MRI


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