Encapsulating anticancer protein therapeutics in nanocarriers is an attractive option to minimize active drug destruction, increase local accumulation at the disease site, and decrease side effects to other tissues. Tumor-specific ligands can further facilitate targeting the nanocarriers to tumor cells and reduce nonspecific cellular internalization. Rationally designed non-covalent protein nanocapsules incorporating copper-free "click chemistry" moieties, polyethylene glycol (PEG) units, redox-sensitive cross-linker, and tumor-specific targeting ligands were synthesized to selectively deliver intracellular protein therapeutics into tumor cells via receptor-mediated endocytosis. These nanocapsules can be conjugated to different targeting ligands of choice, such as anti-Her2 antibody single-chain variable fragment (scFv) and luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) peptide, resulting in specific and efficient accumulation within tumor cells overexpressing corresponding receptors. LHRH-conjugated nanocapsules selectively delivered recombinant human tumor suppressor protein p53 and its tumor-selective supervariant into targeted tumor cells, which led to reactivation of p53-mediated apoptosis. Our results validate a general approach for targeted protein delivery into tumor cells using cellular-responsive nanocarriers, opening up new opportunities for the development of intracellular protein-based anticancer treatment.