Class invariants by Siegel resolvents and the modularity of their Galois traces

Ho Yun Jung, Yoonjin Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The modular trace of the normalized Hauptmodul has been extended to the Galois trace of a class invariant by Kaneko. It is an important issue to search for class invariants for which the Galois traces have modularity. The crucial point in this paper is that we initiate a new notion, called Siegel resolvents; we define the Siegel resolvents as the quadratic polynomials of Siegel functions of level 3, so that they are modular functions of level 3 as well. We construct real-valued class invariants over imaginary quadratic fields by using the singular values of Siegel resolvents at imaginary quadratic irrationals. We also prove that the generating series of their Galois traces becomes a weakly holomorphic modular form with weight 3/2. This shows that the work of D. Zagier on traces of singular moduli can be extended to the modular functions of higher level.

Original languageEnglish
JournalRamanujan Journal
StateAccepted/In press - 2021


  • Class field theory
  • Galois traces
  • Modular forms
  • Modular traces
  • Siegel functions


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