Objectives: To assess the risk gradient of chromosomal abnormalities and fetal or neonatal death across a socioeconomic spectrum of pregnant women. Methods: We used the data from the Korean Prenatal Diagnosis Study (KPDS), which included singleton pregnancies who were candidates for fetal aneuploidy screening enrolled from the Seoul Capital Area from December 2016 to April 2018. We analyzed chromosomal abnormalities which were diagnosed pre- or postnatally, and fetal or neonatal death. The highest level of education among the women and the average monthly household income were used as proxies for socioeconomic status. Results: Among the 6,715 women, the majority of were 30–39 years old and university graduates, with a reported household income higher than the national median. Chromosomal abnormalities occurred in 45 women (6.7 per 1,000). Fetal or neonatal death occurred in 70 (11.3 per 1,000), excluding pregnancies affected by chromosomal abnormality diagnosis. The adjusted odds ratio for chromosomal abnormalities was higher when household income was < 4,484 USD per month. For fetal or neonatal death, the risk estimates for lower education and lower household income were generally positive but remained imprecise. Conclusion: We observed some evidence of an inverse association between the risk of fetal chromosomal abnormality and level of household income in a prospective cohort of pregnant women. Interventions to reduce socioeconomic disparities in perinatal health should focus on those with a low household income.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by a grant from the Korea Health Technology R&D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (HC15C1336) and by the National Research Foundation (2022R1A2C1006364).
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.
- Perinatal Mortality
- Socioeconomic status