Children's Environmental Health Indicators for Low- and Middle-Income Countries in Asia

Eun Mi Jung, Eun Mee Kim, Minah Kang, Fiona Goldizen, Fiona Gore, Marie Noel Brune Drisse, Eun Hee Ha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Background Given that low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in Asia still have high child mortality rates, improved monitoring using children's environmental health indicators (CEHI) may help reduce preventable deaths by creating healthy environments. Objectives Thus, the aim of this study is to build a set of targeted CEHI that can be applied in LMICs in Asia through the CEHI initiative using a common conceptual framework. Methods A systematic review was conducted to identify the most frequently used framework for developing CEHI. Due to the limited number of eligible records, a hand search of the reference lists and an extended search of Google Scholar were also performed. Based on our findings, we designed a set of targeted CEHI to address the children's environmental health situation in LMICs in Asia. The Delphi method was then adopted to assess the relevance, appropriateness, and feasibility of the targeted CEHI. Findings The systematic review indicated that the Driving-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action framework and the Multiple-Exposures-Multiple-Effects model were the most common conceptual frameworks for developing CEHI. The Multiple-Exposures-Multiple-Effects model was adopted, given that its population of interest is children and its emphasis on the many-to-many relationship. Our review also showed that most of the previous studies covered upper-middle– or high-income countries. The Delphi results validated the targeted CEHI. The targeted CEHI were further specified by age group, gender, and place of residence (urban/rural) to enhance measurability. Conclusions Improved monitoring systems of children's environmental health using the targeted CEHI may mitigate the data gap and enhance the quality of data in LMICs in Asia. Furthermore, critical information on the complex interaction between the environment and children's health using the CEHI will help establish a regional environmental children's health action plan, named “The Children's Environment and Health Action Plan for Asia.”

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)530-540
Number of pages11
JournalAnnals of Global Health
Issue number3-4
StatePublished - May 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 The Authors


  • Asia
  • children's environmental health indicators
  • diarrheal diseases
  • insect-borne diseases
  • low- and middle-income countries
  • respiratory diseases


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