Background: Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with -galactosidase A (-Gal A) is currently the most effective therapeutic strategy for patients with Fabry disease, a lysosomal storage disease. However, ERT has limitations of a short half-life, requirement for frequent administration, and limited efficacy for patients with renal failure. Therefore, we investigated the efficacy of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector-mediated gene therapy for a Fabry disease mouse model and compared it with that of ERT. Methods. A pseudotyped rAAV2/8 vector encoding -Gal A cDNA (rAAV2/8-hAGA) was prepared and injected into 18-week-old male Fabry mice through the tail vein. The -Gal A expression level and globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) levels in the Fabry mice were examined and compared with Fabry mice with ERT. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies were conducted. Results. Treatment of Fabry mice with rAAV2/8-hAGA resulted in the clearance of accumulated Gb3 in tissues such as liver, spleen, kidney, heart, and brain with concomitant elevation of -Gal A enzyme activity. Enzyme activity was elevated for up to 60 weeks. In addition, expression of the -Gal A protein was identified in the presence of rAAV2/8-hAGA at 6, 12, and 24 weeks after treatment. -Gal A activity was significantly higher in the mice treated with rAAV2/8-hAGA than in Fabry mice that received ERT. Along with higher -Gal A activity in the kidney of the Fabry mice treated with gene therapy, immunohistochemical studies showed more -Gal A expression in the proximal tubules and glomerulus, and less Gb3 deposition in Fabry mice treated with this gene therapy than in mice given ERT. The -gal A gene transfer significantly reduced the accumulation of Gb3 in the tubules and podocytes of the kidney. Electron microscopic analysis of the kidneys of Fabry mice also showed that gene therapy was more effective than ERT. Conclusions. The rAAV2/8-hAGA mediated -Gal A gene therapy provided improved efficiency over ERT in the Fabry disease mouse model. Furthermore, rAAV2/8-hAGA-mediated expression showed a greater effect in the kidney than ERT.