Characterization of a T7-like lytic bacteriophage (φSG-JL2) of Salmonella enterica serovar gallinarum biovar gallinarum

Hyuk Joon Kwon, Sun Hee Cho, Tae Eun Kim, Yong Jin Won, Jihye Jeong, Chang Park Se, Jae Hong Kim, Han Sang Yoo, Yong Ho Park, Sun Joong Kim

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22 Scopus citations


φSG-JL2 is a newly discovered lytic bacteriophage infecting Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum but is nonlytic to a rough vaccine strain of serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum (SG-9R), S. enterica serovar Enteritidis, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, and S. enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Pullorum. The φSG-JL2 genome is 38,815 bp in length (GC content, 50.9%; 230-bp-long direct terminal repeats), and 55 putative genes may be transcribed from the same strand. Functions were assigned to 30 genes based on high amino acid similarity to known proteins. Most of the expected proteins except tail fiber (31.9%) and the overall organization of the genomes were similar to those of yersiniophage φYeO3-12. φSG-JL2 could be classified as a new T7-like virus and represents the first serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum phage genome to be sequenced. On the basis of intraspecific ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide changes (Pi[a]/Pi[s]), gene 2 encoding the host RNA polymerase inhibitor displayed Darwinian positive selection. Pretreatment of chickens with φSG-JL2 before intratracheal challenge with wild-type serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum protected most birds from fowl typhoid. Therefore, φSG-JL2 may be useful for the differentiation of serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum from other Salmonella serotypes, prophylactic application in fowl typhoid control, and understanding of the vertical evolution of T7-like viruses.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6970-6979
Number of pages10
JournalApplied and Environmental Microbiology
Issue number22
StatePublished - Nov 2008


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