Change in smoking status and its relation to the risk of gastroduodenal ulcer in Korean men

Sung Keun Park, Min Ho Kim, Ju Young Jung, Chang Mo Oh, Eunhee Ha, Eun Hye Yang, Hyo Choon Lee, Woo Yeon Hwang, Ann Hee You, Jae Hong Ryoo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background and Aim: Smoking is associated with the increased risk of gastroduodenal ulcer. However, although smoking status can vary over time, most of studies have analyzed this association with smoking status at a single point of time. We analyzed the risk of gastroduodenal ulcer according to change in smoking status for more than 5 years. Methods: Study participants were 43 380 Korean adults free of gastroduodenal ulcer who received health check-up between 2002 and 2013. Through evaluating their smoking status (never, quitter, and current) at 2003–2004 and 2009, they were categorized them into seven groups (never-never, never-quitter, never-current, quitter-quitter, quitter-current, current-quitter, and current-current) and monitored until 2013 to identify incident gastroduodenal ulcer. Cox-proportional hazard model was used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for incident gastroduodenal ulcer according to changes in smoking status and smoking amount. Results: Compared with never-never group (reference), other groups had the significantly increased adjusted HRs and 95% CI for gastroduodenal ulcer. In particular, participants with current smoking (never-current, quitter-current, and current-current) had the relatively higher HRs than other groups (never-quitter: 1.200 [1.070–1.346], never-current: 1.375 [1.156–1.636], quitter-quitter: 1.149 [1.010–1.306], quitter-current: 1.325 [1.058–1.660], current-quitter: 1.344 [1.188–1.519], and current-current: 1.379 [1.256–1.513]). Heavy smoker had the highest risk for gastroduodenal ulcer, followed by moderate and light smoker. Conclusion: People who ever experienced smoking had increased risk of gastroduodenal ulcer. Out of smoking status, current smoking is more associated with the increased risk of gastroduodenal ulcer than past smoking.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2091-2097
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Australia)
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.


  • cessation of smoking
  • duodenal ulcer
  • gastric ulcer
  • smoking


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