Background and Aim: Smoking is associated with the increased risk of gastroduodenal ulcer. However, although smoking status can vary over time, most of studies have analyzed this association with smoking status at a single point of time. We analyzed the risk of gastroduodenal ulcer according to change in smoking status for more than 5 years. Methods: Study participants were 43 380 Korean adults free of gastroduodenal ulcer who received health check-up between 2002 and 2013. Through evaluating their smoking status (never, quitter, and current) at 2003–2004 and 2009, they were categorized them into seven groups (never-never, never-quitter, never-current, quitter-quitter, quitter-current, current-quitter, and current-current) and monitored until 2013 to identify incident gastroduodenal ulcer. Cox-proportional hazard model was used to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for incident gastroduodenal ulcer according to changes in smoking status and smoking amount. Results: Compared with never-never group (reference), other groups had the significantly increased adjusted HRs and 95% CI for gastroduodenal ulcer. In particular, participants with current smoking (never-current, quitter-current, and current-current) had the relatively higher HRs than other groups (never-quitter: 1.200 [1.070–1.346], never-current: 1.375 [1.156–1.636], quitter-quitter: 1.149 [1.010–1.306], quitter-current: 1.325 [1.058–1.660], current-quitter: 1.344 [1.188–1.519], and current-current: 1.379 [1.256–1.513]). Heavy smoker had the highest risk for gastroduodenal ulcer, followed by moderate and light smoker. Conclusion: People who ever experienced smoking had increased risk of gastroduodenal ulcer. Out of smoking status, current smoking is more associated with the increased risk of gastroduodenal ulcer than past smoking.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology (Australia)|
|State||Published - Nov 2022|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We used the National Health Insurance Service–National Sample Cohort database and the dataset was obtained from the National Health Insurance Service. Our study findings were not related to the National Health Insurance Service.
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea in 2020 (grant number: 2020R1G1A1102257). The funding organization had no role in the design or conduct of this research. Financial support:
© 2022 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
- cessation of smoking
- duodenal ulcer
- gastric ulcer