Here, we report the observation of extrapontine lesions, in addition to the pontine lesions previously documented in a diagnosed case of hemodialysis-associated osmotic demyelination syndrome due to end-stage renal disease. The patient exhibited lesions on bilateral middle cerebellar peduncles, and had been receiving regular hemodialysis as treatment for end-stage renal disease. He presented with progressive gait disturbance and postural instability. Accompanying symptoms included peduncular hallucinations and mild cognitive dysfunction. Brain MRI revealed high signal intensity in the area of bilateral cerebellar peduncles on the diffusion and T2-weighted images, with a decreased signal intensity noted on the ADC map. The ataxic form of osmotic myelinolysis syndrome is quite rare. The involvement of the cerebellar peduncles in extrapontine myelinolysis in a patient with end stage renal disease has not, to our knowledge, been previously reported. Here, we describe the MRI findings and clinical features associated with this unique case, and include a review of the relevant literature.
- Cerebellar peduncle
- Extrapontine myelinolysis