The anticancer effect of cytoplasmic fraction from Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, which had showed strong antiproliferative activity against SNUC2A human colon cancer cell line in the previous study, was investigated. The proliferation of SNUC2A was inhibited by the treatment with cytoplasmic fraction of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis in a dose-dependent and partially reversible manner. After exposure to the cytoplasmic fraction of Lc. lactis for 72 h, strong antiproliferative activity was efficiently induced through S-phase accumulation in SNUC2A cells. Analysis of cell cycle regulatory proteins demonstrated that the cytoplasmic fraction enhanced the levels of p21 CIP1 and cyclin A, decreased cyclin E protein, and slightly reduced the activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2).