Upon necroptosis activation, receptor interacting serine/threonine kinase (RIPK)1 and RIPK3 form a necrosome complex with pseudokinase mixed lineage kinase-like (MLKL). Although protein phosphorylation is a key event for RIPK1 and RIPK3 activation in response to a necroptosis signal, relatively little is known about other factors that might regulate the activity of these kinases or necrosome formation. Through a gain-of-function screen with 546 kinases and 127 phosphatases, we identified casein kinase 1 gamma (CK1γ) as a candidate necroptosis-promoting factor. Here, we show that the decreased activity or amounts of CK1γ1 and CK1γ3, either by treatment with a chemical inhibitor or knockdown in cells, reduced TNFα-induced necroptosis. Conversely, ectopic expression of CK1γ1 or CK1γ3 exacerbated necroptosis, but not apoptosis. Similar to RIPK1 and RIPK3, CK1γ1 was also cleaved at Asp343 by caspase-8 during apoptosis. CK1γ1 and CK1γ3 formed a protein complex and were recruited to the necrosome harboring RIPK1, RIPK3 and MLKL. In particular, an autophosphorylated form of CK1γ3 at Ser344/345 was detected in the necrosome and was required to mediate the necroptosis. In addition, in vitro assays with purified proteins showed that CK1γ phosphorylated RIPK3, affecting its activity, and in vivo assays showed that the CK1γ-specific inhibitor Gi prevented abrupt death in mice with hypothermia in a model of TNFα-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Collectively, these data suggest that CK1γ1 and CK1γ3 are required for TNFα-induced necroptosis likely by regulating RIPK3.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
S.L., C.L., J.K., and M.J. were in part supported by the BK21 program. This work was supported by a Global Research Laboratory grant (NRF-2010-00341) and a Bio & Medical Technology Development Program of the National Research Foundation (NRF-2017M3A9G7073521) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology.
© 2019, The Author(s).