Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induces proliferation and maturation of myeloid progenitor cells and also activates neutrophils. In order to investigate the pleiotropic effects of GM-CSF stimulation, we examined the signaling pathways of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) in GMCSF-dependent proliferation of leukemia cells. Using TF-1, a GM-CSF-dependent human erythroleukemia cell line, we found that GM-CSF enhanced DNA-binding and tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT3. GM-CSF receptor (GM-CSFR) and c-Fes tyrosine kinase were also activated upon GM-CSF stimulation. Furthermore, c-Fes formed a complex with STAT3. Experiments using a c-Fes mutant that lacked tyrosine kinase activity revealed that the activation of STAT3 is kinase-dependent, but that the c-Fes-STAT3 interaction is not affected by c-Fes tyrosine kinase activity. The results suggest that STAT3 is activated by c-Fes tyrosine kinase through direct interaction during hematopoietic cell proliferation induced by GM-CSF.
- Tyrosine phosphorylation