Bone graft materials have been mainly developed based on inorganic materials, including calcium phosphate. However, these graft materials usually act as osteoconductive rather than osteoinductive scaffolds. To improve bone reconstruction, a combination of several materials has been proposed. However, there are still no alternatives that can completely replace the existing animal-derived bone graft materials. In this work, a marine-inspired biomineral complex was suggested as a potential bone graft material. The proposed biosilicified coccolithophore-derived coccoliths using bioengineered mussel adhesive proteins show osteopromotive ability through the synergistic effects of osteoconductivity from calcium carbonate and osteoinductivity from silica. Its possibility of use as a bone substitute was determined by evaluating the in vitro osteogenic behaviors of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells and in vivo bone regeneration in a rat calvarial defect model. Therefore, the marine-inspired biomineral complex developed in this study could be successfully used for bone tissue engineering.
- bone regeneration
- bone substitutes