There have been some concerns that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may be associated with the risk of prostate cancer. Meta-analyses have not yet investigated the association between human-biomonitoring data for POPs and prostate cancer risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between body concentration of individual compounds or mixtures of POPs and prostate cancer risk in the general population by performing a meta-analysis. A literature search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, and KoreaMed from the period 1950 through 2014. The odds ratio (OR) and its 95 % confidence interval (CI) of prostate cancer associated with POPs were estimated using fixed-effects model or random-effects model where appropriate. Dose–response relationships were assessed by using the generalized least-squares method for trend estimation. A total of eight (six case–control, one cross-sectional, one nested case–control) studies including 1158 prostate cancer cases among 6932 subjects were selected for the meta-analysis. Total POPs of interest showed positive associations with statistical significance on prostate cancer (OR 1.31, 95 % CI 1.13, 1.57). In dose–response meta-analysis, 1 μg/g lipid of PCBs was found to be associated with a 49 % increased risk of prostate cancer (OR 1.49, 95 % CI 1.07, 2.06). One nanogram per gram (1000 μg/g) lipid of trans-nonachlor was found to be associated with approximately 2 % increased risk of prostate cancer (OR = 1.02/1 ng/g lipid of trans-nonachlor, 95 % CI 1.00, 1.03). The available evidence suggests that body concentrations of POPs are positively associated with prostate cancer risk, which implies valuable evidence for prostate cancer prevention.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by a grant (13162KFDA891) from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in 2013 and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (2011–0029348).
© 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
- Endocrine disruptors
- Persistent organic pollutants (POPs)
- Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
- Prostate cancer