Blood cadmium concentrations of male cigarette smokers are inversely associated with fruit consumption

Hyesook Kim, Hee Jung Lee, Ji Yun Hwang, Eun Hee Ha, Hyesook Park, Mina Ha, Ja Hyeong Kim, Yun Chul Hong, Namsoo Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Decreased fruit and vegetable consumption, along with elevated blood cadmium concentrations, are frequently observed among cigarette smokers. Few studies have investigated whether the blood cadmium concentrations of cigarette smokers are associated with the consumption of antioxidative nutrients, as well as foods containing high concentrations of antioxidative nutrients and phytochemicals, such as fruits and vegetables. In this study, we aimed to determine where there is any relationship between blood cadmium concentration and the consumption of certain foods and nutrients in adult male smokers. Blood cadmium concentrations in whole blood samples from 546 adult men, whose pregnant wives were registered in the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health Study, were analyzed using the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Dietary intakes were assessed using a semiquantitative FFQ. Blood cadmium concentrations were higher in the smokers than in the nonsmokers (P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis with covariates revealed that blood cadmium concentrations were negatively associated with intakes of fruit (P = 0.001), vitamin C (P = 0.035), and fiber (P = 0.049), but only in the smokers. These results warrant future studies to explore any mechanisms responsible for fruit's beneficial role against elevated blood cadmium concentrations in smokers. J. Nutr. 140: 1133-1138, 2010.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1133-1138
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2010


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