Black Start and Grid Synchronization Effect Study on GFM IBR-based Power System

Dong Hwi Kim, Jung Soo Jang, Jin Hur, Seungmin Jung, Minhan Yoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The increasing use of inverter-based resources, while reducing synchronous generators, decreases the system's inertia, leading to an increased risk of power outages. The shift from a centralized power generation structure to a decentralized structure can be effective for stable operation of inverter-based power generation sources and to mitigate the risks of power outages. The grid forming inverter can perform the same role as a synchronous generator and can contribute to energizing primary restorative transmission systems. Grid-forming inverters must meet several requirements to replace synchronous generators in power systems. One of the most important requirements is the ability to operate as AC voltage sources. This means that the grid-forming inverter must be able to provide a stable AC voltage to the grid, just like a synchronous generator. To address this, a black start study using inverter resources was conducted, and a pumping generator-IBR cooperative black start was simulated through cooperation with an existing black start resource. The paper proposed the grid-synchronization method of grid-forming inverter and emphasizes the need for independent and quick recovery of inverter resources, which must operate as AC voltage sources to replace synchronous generators and contribute the primary power system restoration. The effectiveness of the proposed method to increase the input capacity and speed by stably inputting through synchronization has been studied and were verified through PSCAD/EMTDC simulation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)349-355
Number of pages7
JournalTransactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers.


  • Black Start
  • GFL
  • GFM
  • Grid-Synchronization
  • IBR


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