Polydiacetylenes (PDAs), a family of conjugated polymers, have very unique electrical and optical properties. Upon environmental stimulation, such as by viruses, proteins, DNAs, metal ions, organic molecules etc. the blue PDAs can undergo a colorimetric transition from blue to red, which is accompanied by a fluorescence enhancement. Since the first report on polymerized diacetylene molecules as sensors of influenza virus, the development of efficient sensory systems based on PDAs continues to be of great interest. This tutorial review highlights the recent advances in bio- and chemo-sensors derived from polydiacetylenes.