Biological characteristics and odontogenic differentiation effects of calcium silicate-based pulp capping materials

Yemi Kim, Donghee Lee, Hye Min Kim, Minjoo Kye, Sin Young Kim

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16 Scopus citations


We compared calcium silicate-based pulp capping materials to conventional calcium hy-droxide in terms of their biological properties and potential effects on odontogenic differentiation in human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). We cultured hDPSCs on disks (7-mm diameter, 4-mm high) of ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties), Biodentine (Septodont), TheraCal LC (Bisco), or Dycal (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties). Cell viability was assessed with cell counting (CCK) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Odontogenic activity was assessed by measuring alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and gene expression (quantitative real-time PCR). CCK assays showed that Dycal reduced cell viability compared to the other materials (p < 0.05). SEM showed low and absent cell attachment on TheraCal LC and Dycal disks, respectively. hDPSCs exposed to TheraCal LC and Dycal showed higher ALP activity on day 6 than the control group (p < 0.05). The day-9 Runx2 expression was higher in the ProRoot MTA and TheraCal LC groups than in the control group (p < 0.05). On day 14, the ProRoot MTA group showed the highest dentin sialophosphopro-tein levels (not significant; p > 0.05). In conclusion, various pulp capping materials, except Dycal, exhibited biological properties favorable to hDPSC viability. ProRoot MTA and TheraCal LC pro-moted higher Runx2 expression than Biodentine. Future studies should explore the odontogenic potential of pulp capping materials.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4661
Issue number16
StatePublished - 2 Aug 2021

Bibliographical note

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© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Biological properties
  • Calcium silicate-based cement
  • Direct pulp capping materials
  • Odontogenic differentiation


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