The family Dipterocarpaceae consists three subfamilies, Dipterocarpoideae, Monotoideae, and Pakaraimoideae. Plants of the largest subfamily, Dipteroearpoideae, are the sources of resveratrol oligomers (oligostilbenoids), sesquiterpenes, and triterpenes, in particular. Resveratrol oligomers, the most characteristic compound class of this subfamily, have been associated with several types of biological activity, such as antibacterial, antiviral, and cytotoxic effects. The two remaining subfamilies, Monotoideae and Pakaraimoideae, which are distinguished from the Dipterocarpoideae by the absence of resin, do not elaborate resveratrol oligomers. Compounds of the oligostilbenoid type seem worthy of more extensive biological investigation than has been the ease to date.