Bilingual profiles differentially predict executive functions during early childhood: A latent profile analysis

Hwajin Yang, Germaine Y.Q. Tng, Wee Qin Ng, Sujin Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Recent studies suggest that heterogeneous bilingual experiences implicate different executive functions (EF) in children. Using a latent profile analysis, we conducted a more nuanced investigation of multifaceted bilingual experiences. By concurrently considering numerous bilingual indicators - age of L1 and L2 acquisition, interactional contexts of verbal exchanges, L1 and L2 proficiency, balance of language use at home and school, and receptive vocabulary - we identified three latent profiles (subgroups): balanced dual-language, dominant single-language, and mixed-interaction. We found that the balanced dual-language and dominant single-language profiles predicted significantly better switching than the mixed-interaction profile. However, no profile differences were found in working memory, prepotent response inhibition, or inhibitory control. These results held true when multiple covariates (age, sex, household income, and nonverbal intelligence) were controlled for. Using a person-centered approach, our study underscores that disparate bilingual experiences asymmetrically predict the shifting facet of EF during early childhood.

Original languageEnglish
StateAccepted/In press - 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by a Lee Kong Chian fellowship and a grant from the Ministry of Social and Family Development (MSF 132-06-237D (45)) awarded to Hwajin Yang; from the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2018S1A5A8027819) awarded to Sujin Yang.

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © The Author(s), 2023. Published by Cambridge University Press.


  • Bilingual profiles
  • executive functions
  • inhibitory control
  • latent profile analysis
  • prepotent response inhibition
  • switching
  • working memory


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