Patients undergoing autologous breast reconstruction (ABR) are more likely to require perioperative transfusions due to the increased intraoperative bleeding. In addition to the mastectomy site, further incisions and muscle dissection are performed at the donor sites, including the back or abdomen, increasing the possibility of transfusion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate perioperative transfusion rates and risk factors according to the type of ABR through analysis of big data. Patients who underwent total mastectomy for breast cancer between 2014 and 2019 were identified. The patients were divided into mastectomy only and immediate ABR groups. The transfusion rate was 14-fold higher in the immediate ABR group (16.1%) compared to the mastectomy only group (1.2%). The transfusion rate was highest with the pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap (24.2%). Performance of the operation in medical institutions located in the provinces and coronary artery disease (CAD) were significant risk factors for the need for transfusion. The perioperative transfusion risk among patients undergoing immediate ABR was related to the flap type, location of medical institution, and CAD. Based on the higher transfusion rate in this study (16.1%) compared to previous studies, the risk factors for the need for transfusion should be determined and evidence-based guidelines should be developed to reduce the transfusion rates.