We present predictions for neutron star tidal deformabilities obtained from a Bayesian analysis of the nuclear equation of state, assuming a minimal model at high-density that neglects the possibility of phase transitions. The Bayesian posterior probability distribution is constructed from priors obtained from microscopic many-body theory based on realistic two- and three-body nuclear forces, while the likelihood functions incorporate empirical information about the equation of state from nuclear experiments. The neutron star crust equation of state is constructed from the liquid drop model, and the core-crust transition density is found by comparing the energy per baryon in inhomogeneous matter and uniform nuclear matter. From the cold β-equilibrated neutron star equation of state, we then compute neutron star tidal deformabilities as well as the mass-radius relationship. Finally, we investigate correlations between the neutron star tidal deformability and properties of finite nuclei.