Barriers to and Facilitators of South Asian Indian-Americans’ Engagement in Advanced Care Planning Behaviors

Kavita Radhakrishnan, Shubhada Saxena, Regina Jillapalli, Yuri Jang, Miyong Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Purpose: To identify barriers to and facilitators of older South Asian Indian-Americans’ (SAIAs’) engagement in behaviors associated with advance care planning (ACP). Methods: Using a descriptive qualitative design guided by the transcultural nursing assessment model, data were collected in focus groups of community-dwelling older SAIA participants, SAIA family caregivers, and SAIA physicians. A directed approach using predetermined coding categories derived from the Transcultural Nursing Assessment model and aided by NVivo 10 software (Melbourne, Australia) facilitated the qualitative data analysis. Results: Eleven focus groups with 36 older SAIAs (61% female, 83% 70+ years old), 10 SAIA family caregivers, and 4 SAIA physicians indicated prior lack of awareness of ACP, good health status, lack of access to linguistically and health literacy–tailored materials, healthcare provider hesitation to initiate discussions on ACP, trust in healthcare providers’ or oldest sons' decision making, busy family caregiver work routines, and cultural assumptions about filial piety and after-death rituals as major barriers to engaging in ACP. Introducing ACP using personal anecdotes in a neutral, group-based community setting and incentivizing ACP discussions by including long-term care planning were suggested as facilitators to engage in ACP. Clinical Relevance: The study's findings will guide development of culturally sensitive interventions to raise awareness about ACP among SAIAs and encourage SAIA older adults to engage in ACP.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)294-302
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Nursing Scholarship
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 2017

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International


  • Advanced care planning
  • South Asian Indians
  • focus group


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