Balanced angular profile analysis

Seung Chul Rhee, So Ra Kang, Heung Sik Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


To evaluate current preferences and ethnic differences of female soft-tissue profiles, 71 profile photographs of famous female models were collected from Internet Web pages and divided into four groups (Korean, 22; Japanese, 15; Chinese, 16; and Western, 18). Eleven soft-tissue landmarks were recorded on each photograph and 16 angular measurements were made by using V-ceph (CyberMed, Inc., Seoul, Korea). Data from each group are presented to show the means, ranges, p and F values, standard deviations, and standard errors of each measurement. In addition, individual measurements for each group were compared with those of the other groups by one-way analysis of variance using a p value corrected for multivariable testing. Between-group mean value differences were calculated using a Tukey's studentized range test (HSD), at a significance level of p = 0.05. Most of the variables were similar in the groups. Significant between-group differences (p < 0.05) were found for angle of alar curvature point, profile convexity, interlabial contour, and nasolabial contour. In addition, we divided all data into two groups (Western and Asian). The t test (with significance level set to p = 0.05) was performed to compare the two. Significant between-group differences (p < 0.05) were found for angle of alar curvature, angle of labiale inferius, profile convexity, and lower lip projection angle, but no significant racial differences were found in terms of several profile angles. These findings suggest that point of ala curvature point, subnasale, and the labiale inferius of Asian models may differ from those of Western models. These peculiar angular patterns of Asian models led the authors to create a new characteristic angular concept, termed the "ethnic pyramid," which is composed of soft-tissue profile points of alar curvature point, subnasale, pronasale, and labiale inferius. This ethnic pyramid describes the characteristic patterns of the ethnic differences. The results of this study suggest that the soft-tissue profiles of famous female models have some common features but also show differences among ethnic groups and races. This simple method of profile analysis may provide aesthetic surgeons with a simple formula and reference data for creation and application of an attractive face. On the basis of their balanced angular profile analysis data, the authors suggest that appropriate and harmonious aesthetic operations reflecting these differences should be considered.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)535-544
Number of pages10
JournalPlastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2004


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