Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxin upregulates heme oxygenase-1 in intestinal epithelial cells via a mitogen-activated protein kinase- and NF-κB-dependent pathway, leading to modulation of apoptosis

Su Hyuk Ko, Da Jeong Rho, Jong Ik Jeon, Young Jeon Kim, Hyun Ae Woo, Yun Kyung Lee, Jung Mogg Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations

Abstract

The Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxin (BFT), a virulence factor of enterotoxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF), interacts with intestinal epithelial cells and can provoke signals that induce mucosal inflammation. Although expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is associated with regulation of inflammatory responses, little is known about HO-1 induction in ETBF infection. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of BFT on HO-1 expression in intestinal epithelial cells. Stimulation of intestinal epithelial cells with BFT resulted in upregulated expression of HO-1. BFT activated transcription factors such as NF-κB, AP-1, and Nrf2 in intestinal epithelial cells. Upregulation of HO-1 in intestinal epithelial cells was dependent on activated IκB kinase (IKK)- NF-κB signals. However, suppression of Nrf2 or AP-1 signals in intestinal epithelial cells did not result in significant attenuation of BFT-induced HO-1 expression. HO-1 induction via IKK-NF-κB in intestinal epithelial cells was regulated by p38 mitogenactivated protein kinases (MAPKs). Furthermore, suppression of HO-1 activity led to increased apoptosis in BFT-stimulated epithelial cells. These results suggest that a signaling pathway involving p38 MAPK-IKK-NF-κB in intestinal epithelial cells is required for HO-1 induction during exposure to BFT. Following this induction, increased HO-1 expression may regulate the apoptotic process in responses to BFT stimulation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2541-2554
Number of pages14
JournalInfection and Immunity
Volume84
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - 2016

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