The annual consumption and production of oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) have continued to rise due to its nutritive and health-promoting benefits. Cultivated mushrooms are mostly grown in small to medium-scaled scale production plants that present hygienic challenges which could, in turn, increase associated foodborne pathogenic outbreaks. The present study aimed to investigate the shift in microbial ecologies of oyster mushrooms from pre-distribution (cultivation in bottles or on shelves) to post-distribution at supermarkets and open-air markets. Aerobic plate counts and coliforms were quantified using traditional microbiological techniques, and the microbiome associated with oyster mushrooms (n = 70) was analyzed using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing for an enhanced level of bacterial microbiota profiling. Overall, coliforms recovered from pre-distribution bottle-cultivated mushrooms were 1.9 log CFU/g higher (p < 0.05) than that of shelf-cultivated mushrooms. The mean aerobic plate counts of oyster mushrooms distributed to open-air markets was 1.2 log CFU/g higher (p < 0.05) than packaged mushrooms from supermarkets while there were no significant differences in coliform counts. The pattern of bacterial composition differed by post-distribution channels, with oyster mushrooms collected from the open-air markets demonstrating the richest microbiome diversity. An increase in the relative abundance of Enterobacteriaceae (55–68 %) and Pseudomonadaceae (27–35 %) was observed in pre- and post-distribution mushrooms, respectively. However, no distinct bacterial microbiota differences were observed for the different cultivation methods or different geographical locations for each market type. The current findings add to our understanding of the effects of cultivation methods and commercial distribution channels regarding the microbiome of oyster mushrooms and may inform potential intervention strategies for future production and distribution processes. Furthermore, the tandem analyses of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods can provide more comprehensive information than that obtained when using each approach independently.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by the Cooperative Research Program for Agricultural Science and Technology Development (Project numbers PJ0156422022 ) and the National Institution of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration , the Republic of Korea.
© 2022 Elsevier B.V.
- Cultivation method
- Distribution channel
- High throughput sequencing
- Mushroom cultivation
- Oyster mushroom