Purpose: This study investigated intentions and attitudes towards future parenthood and awareness of fertility among university students in South Korea. Methods: The participants comprised 166 female and male undergraduate students enrolled at five universities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from May to July 2019 using the Korean version of the Fertility Awareness Questionnaire and Attitudes of Parenthood. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics based on participants' general characteristics, the x2 test to identify differences in intentions, and the t-test to evaluate attitudes towards parenthood and awareness of fertility in female and male students. Results: Both female and male students desired to have two children, but they lacked awareness about fertility. The possibility of combining work and having children, along with the availability of childcare resources, impacted the desire for parenthood. Male students tended to consider parenthood as less impactful on their lives and careers than female students. Social structures might also impact the decision to have children. Conclusion: It is important to provide health education emphasizing fertility awareness and parenthood in young adulthood so participants can consider these facts in advance. In addition, the government should provide resources for couples making parenthood decisions.
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