Saccharide compounds can distinguish the influence of both biogenic emissions and anthropogenic sources. In this study, the spatial distribution of 10 saccharide compounds was observed to determine the major factor for the production of organic aerosols in the pristine marine regions from the North Pacific Ocean to the Antarctic Ocean. The pristine marine atmospheric PM2.5 (Particle matter with an aerodynamic diameter equal to or less than nominal 2.5 μm) samples were collected using a high-volume air sampler connected to a wind sector controller installed in the Korean Ice-breaking Research Vessel (IBRV) during the cruise through the Pacific Ocean: from the Yellow Sea, Korea on October 31, 2018 to the Antarctic Ocean on December 14, 2018. In the pristine marine region, the total saccharides concentrations varied greatly from 0.16 to 16.57 ng/m3 (mean: 3.02 ± 4.76 ng/m3). The compositions of 10 saccharide compounds in each PM2.5 sample changed when the marine geographic characteristics changed. The contribution of levoglucosan in the sample collected near land was higher than the sample collected in the open ocean. In addition, saccharides concentrations had a strong positive correlation with OC (Organic carbon), indicating that the increase of saccharides concentrations strongly contributes to the increase in OC concentration in the pristine marine region. The highest concentration of saccharides was observed near the New Zealand coast, which also showed highest air mass exposure to marine biology. We also found that the spatial distribution of saccharide composition was correlated with the spatial distribution of phytoplankton. From these observations, we concluded that 1) marine phytoplankton can be a significant source of organic aerosol production and 2) the type of phytoplankton in a region affects the change of saccharides composition in PM2.5.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI, PE22030) and by the FRIEND (Fine Particle Research Initiative in East Asia Considering National Differences) Project (2020M3G1A1114537) funded through the National Research Foundation of Korea ( NRF ) by the Ministry of Science and ICT .
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- Antarctic region
- Korean IBRV Araon
- Organic aerosol
- Pristine marine aerosol