Infection is associated with occurrence and worsening of heart failure (HF). However, studies on the association of susceptibility and severe complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with HF history are limited. From the Korean nationwide COVID-19 data set, 212,678 participants with at least one severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test were included between January 1 and June 4, 2020. To investigate the association of HF with susceptibility and severe complications of COVID-19, 1:4 ratio propensity score matching (PSM) and logistic regression analysis were performed. The primary outcome was a composite outcome of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death. After PSM, COVID-19 PCR positivity did not show a significant difference according to HF history in multivariable analysis (odds ratio [OR]: 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.79–1.04), p = 0.146). Of 7630 individuals with confirmed COVID-19 infection, 310 (4.1%) had HF history. The overall primary outcome occurred in 426 (5.6%) individuals, including 159 (2.1%) cases of mechanical ventilation, 254 (3.3%) cases of ICU admission, and 215 (2.8%) cases of death. In multivariate logistic analysis, presence of HF history was associated independently with primary outcome (OR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.42–2.79, p < 0.001), particularly mortality (OR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.36–3.00, p < 0.001). Our study demonstrated that HF history is associated poor prognosis, particularly mortality, in COVID-19. Patients with HF can have severe complication if infected with COVID-19; therefore, careful management are necessary.