Short sleep duration or poor sleep quality has been associated with an increased risk of obesity. Although the underlying mechanism remains unclear, one proposed pathway is poor diet quality. This cross-sectional study investigated whether diet quality modifies the association between sleep status and obesity in Korean adults. We used the baseline data and samples of 737 men and 428 women (n = 1165) aged 19–64, who participated in the prospective Ewha–Boramae cohort study. Sleep duration was dichotomized into ≥7 h (adequate) and <7 h (insufficient). Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) values, reflecting sleep quality, were dichotomized into >5 (poor quality) and ≤5 (good quality). Diet quality was evaluated by the Recommended Food Score (RFS). Obesity was associated with higher rates of insufficient sleep and poor sleep quality in women, but not in men. After adjustment for covariates, women with poor sleep quality had a higher risk of obesity than women with good sleep quality (OR = 2.198; 95% CI = 1.027–4.704); this association occurred only in the group with RFS ≤ median score. Our findings support a significant association between sleep quality and obesity, and this association has been potentially modified by dietary quality in women.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by the Bio-synergy Research Project (NRF2012M3A9C4048761) of the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning through the National Research Foundation, Republic of Korea.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Diet quality
- Effect modifier
- Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)
- Recommended Food Score (RFS)
- Sleep duration
- Sleep quality