A novel polymorphism (+1871A>G) in the 3′ flanking region and haplotypes were significantly associated with reduced osteoporosis risk and enhanced bone mineral density (BMD). These results suggest that TWIST1 may be a useful genetic marker for osteoporosis. Our results provide preliminary evidence supporting an association of TWIST1 with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Introduction: TWIST1, a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, has been implicated in cell lineage determination and differentiation. Methods: To address the genetic variations in the TWIST1 gene associated with osteoporosis, we investigated the potential involvement of three TWIST1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in osteoporosis in 729 postmenopausal women. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results: A novel polymorphism in the 3′ flanking region (+1871A>G) was significantly associated with osteoporosis risk (p = 0.007-0.008) and also in multiple comparison (p = 0.02). Consistent with these results, haplotype analysis showed that Block1-ht2 had protective effects in the dominant and additive model (p = 0.006-0.007). Specifically, the +1871A>G polymorphism was overdominantly associated with higher BMD values of the femoral neck (p = 0.039). Conclusion: These results suggest that TWIST1 may be a useful genetic marker for osteoporosis and may have a role on bone metabolism in humans. Our results provide preliminary evidence supporting an association of TWIST1 with osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.