Background: Nutrients that support the desired growth and development of the fetus (i.e., micronutrients like folate, iron, and zinc) have been associated with birth outcomes, such as gestational age at delivery and birth weight. Objectives: We characterized the maternal dietary patterns that explain the maximum variation in folate, iron, and zinc intakes in pregnant Korean women using reduced-rank regression (RRR) and investigated the association of these patterns with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) risk. Methods: A total of 1158 pregnant Korean women at 12-28 weeks of gestation and their newborns were recruited for the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study between 2006 and 2010. A semiquantitative FFQ was collected from the women, and RRR was used to derive their dietary patterns. Log-transformed maternal intakes of folate, iron, and zinc were selected as the intermediate response variables to extract dietary patterns. Infant birth outcome measurements were obtained from hospital records. Associations were assessed by logistic regression with adjustment for confounding factors. Results: Three dietary patterns were identified. Pattern 1, characterized by high intakes of grains, green/yellow and light-colored vegetables, kimchi, legumes, fruits, meat, eggs, fish, seaweeds, tofu/soymilk, yogurt, and nuts, was associated with a lower risk of SGA in the highest quartile than in the lowest quartile (OR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.94). Especially, maternal dietary pattern 1 was negatively related to high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in the blood and malondialdehyde concentrations in the urine. No association was observed between other dietary patterns and SGA. Conclusion: Among pregnant Korean women, adherence to a dietary pattern characterized by high intakes of grains, green/yellow and light-colored vegetables, kimchi, legumes, fruits, meat, eggs, fish, seaweeds, tofu/soymilk, yogurt, and nuts is associated with a lower risk of delivering SGA infants.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Society for Nutrition.
- Birth cohort study
- Community-based collaborative network
- Dietary pattern
- Food-frequency questionnaire
- Pregnant women
- Reduced-rank regression (RRR)
- Small-for-gestational-age (SGA)