Association of gamma-glutamyl transferase variability with risk of venous thrombosis

Yoonkyung Chang, Heajung Lee, Tae Jin Song

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) is a biomarker of inflammation, and is known to be associated with stroke and atrial fibrillation. Venous thromboembolism (VT), a not uncommon thrombotic disorder, shares similar mechanisms with other thrombotic disorders including these stroke and atrial fibrillation. Given these associations, we intended to investigate the potential association between variability in GGT and VT. The study included data from the National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort, comprising 1,085,105 participants with health examinations 3 or more times from 2003 to 2008. Variability indexes were the coefficient of variation, standard deviation, and variability independent of the mean. The occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VT) was defined with more than one claim of the following ICD-10 codes: deep VT (I80.2–80.3), pulmonary thromboembolism (I26), intraabdominal venous thrombosis (I81, I82.2, I82.3), or other VT (I82.8, I82.9). To determine the relationship of quartiles of GGT with incident VT risk, Kaplan–Meier survival curve and logrank test were used. Cox’s proportional hazard regression was used to investigate the risk of VT occurrence by GGT quartile (Q1–Q4). A total of 1,085,105 subjects were incorporated in the analysis, and the average follow-up was 12.4 years (interquartile range 12.2–12.6). VT occurred in 11,769 (1.08%) patients. The GGT level was measured 5,707,768 times in this stud. Multivariable analysis showed that GGT variability were positively associated with the occurrence of VT. Compared to the Q1, the Q4 showed an adjusted HR of 1.15 (95% CI 1.09–1.21, p < 0.001) when using coefficient of variation, 1.24 (95% CI 1.17–1.31, p < 0.001) when using standard deviation, and 1.10 (95% CI 1.05–1.16, p < 0.001) when using variability independent of the mean. Increased variability of GGT may be related to an increased risk of VT. Maintaining a stable GGT level would be beneficial in reducing the risk of VT.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7402
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This project was supported by a grant from the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education (2021R1F1A1048113 to T-JS, 2021R1I1A1A01059868 to YC), by an Institute of Information & Communications Technology Planning & Evaluation (IITP) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (No. 2022-0-00621 to T.-J.S., Development of artificial intelligence technology that provides dialog-based multi-modal explainability). This research was supported by a grant of the Korea Health Technology R & D Project through the Korea Health Industry Development Institute (KHIDI), funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare, Republic of Korea (grant number: HI22C073600 to T.-J.S.). The funding source had no role in the design, conduct, or reporting of the study.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s).


Dive into the research topics of 'Association of gamma-glutamyl transferase variability with risk of venous thrombosis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this