Background: Prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) has been linked to allergic disease onset. Variations in the glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene family can impact the progression of allergic diseases. We sought to examine the association between prenatal PAH exposure and infantile allergic diseases in 6-month-old infants, and how maternal glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) or T1 (GSTT1) polymorphism affects the association between prenatal PAH exposure and allergic diseases in the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health (MOCEH) study. Methods: The study sample comprised 349 infants and their mothers from the MOCEH study, for whom 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 2-naphthol were measured in both the early period of pregnancy and late period of pregnancy. An infant was deemed to be affected by an allergic disease if diagnosed with or if developed at least one of the allergic diseases. A logistic regression analysis was performed to study the association between urinary 1-OHP and 2-naphthol levels during pregnancy and allergic diseases in 6-month-old infants. Furthermore, analyses stratified by maternal GSTM1 or GSTT1 present/null polymorphisms were performed. Results: The risk of allergic diseases in 6-month-old infants was significantly increased in accordance with an increase in urinary 1-OHP during the early period of pregnancy (odds ratio [OR]: 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05, 3.23; by one log-transformed unit of 1-OHP μg/g creatinine). The increased risk of infantile allergic diseases associated with urinary 1-OHP during the early period of pregnancy was limited to the maternal GSTT1 null type (OR: 2.69; 95% CI: 1.17, 6.21, by one log-transformed unit of 1-OHP μg/g creatinine); however, the Relative Excess Risk due to Interaction was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The present study found that infantile allergic diseases could be affected by intrauterine PAH exposure, particularly in the early prenatal period and the risk was limited to the maternal GSTT1 null type.
- Allergic diseases in infants
- GST polymorphisms
- Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons