Association between Dietary Diversity Score and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults: A Community-Based Prospective Cohort Study

Jiyeon Kim, Minji Kim, Yoonjin Shin, Jung Hee Cho, Donglim Lee, Yangha Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Dietary diversity is recognized as a key indicator of dietary quality and is known to affect the burden of non-communicable diseases. This study examined the gender-stratified association between dietary diversity score (DDS) and risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in 5468 adults aged 40–69 years during a 12-year follow-up of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). DDS was calculated according to the consumption of the five food groups based on the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for Koreans. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to evaluate MetS risk according to DDS. A higher DDS was negatively associated with the consumption of grains but positively associated with the consumption of fruits and non-salted vegetables. Furthermore, participants with a higher DDS showed higher consumption of fish and milk. Prospectively, a higher DDS was significantly associated with a lower risk of MetS in men (HR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.63–0.92, p < 0.01). In all participants, a higher DDS was inversely associated with the incidence of abdominal obesity (men, HR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.62–0.93, p < 0.01; women, HR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.67–0.94, p < 0.01). Furthermore, men with a higher DDS had a lower risk of hypertriglyceridemia (HR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.71–0.97, p < 0.05). These findings suggested that eating a more varied diet might have favorable effects on preventing MetS in Korean adults.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5298
Issue number24
StatePublished - Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by the academic–research cooperation program of the Korea Maritime Institute (KMI) (No. 2022-0053-1002).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.


  • dietary diversity score
  • dietary quality
  • gender stratification
  • longitudinal study
  • metabolic syndrome


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