This study describes the long-term clinical results and serial changes of postoperative range of motion after arthroscopic treatment for limitation of motion of the elbow. Sixty-three patients with limitation of motion of the elbow were treated with arthroscopic procedures. The total range of motion was 79 degrees before surgery. The range of motion showed a progressive increase until 1 year after surgery (mean, 121 degrees). However, after 1 year, the range of motion showed little additional increase. The range of motion acquired during surgery (mean, 122 degrees) usually was the same range that patients achieved during the rehabilitation period (mean, 122 degrees at an average 42.5 months of followup). Extension improved an average of 21 degrees, and flexion increased an average of 23 degrees. The range of motion showed more improvement in patients whose duration of symptoms was less than 1 year (49 degrees) than in those whose duration of symptoms was longer than 1 year (30 degrees). Patients with posttraumatic stiffness had more marked limitation of extension and decreased total range of motion (73 degrees) than did those with degenerative stiffness (86 degrees) before surgery. However, no significant difference existed in the postoperative total range of motion (posttraumatic stiffness, 123 degrees; and degenerative stiffness, 121 degrees). Based on the authors' experience, 92% of patients obtained significant improvement in range of motion after arthroscopic procedures. The minimally invasive nature of elbow arthroscopy is a reproducible and effective procedure for limitation of motion of the elbow with minimal morbidity.