Arrestin 1 and cone arrestin 4 have unique roles in visual function in an all-cone mouse retina

Janise D. Deming, Joseph S. Pak, Jung A. Shin, Bruce M. Brown, Moon K. Kim, Moe H. Aung, Eun Jin Lee, Machelle T. Pardue, Cheryl Mae Craft

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


PURPOSE. Previous studies discovered cone phototransduction shutoff occurs normally for Arr1-/- and Arr4-/-; however, it is defective when both visual arrestins are simultaneously not expressed (Arr1-/-Arr4-/-). We investigated the roles of visual arrestins in an all-cone retina (Nrl-/-) since each arrestin has differential effects on visual function, including ARR1 for normal light adaptation, and ARR4 for normal contrast sensitivity and visual acuity. METHODS. We examined Nrl-/-, Nrl-/-Arr1-/-, Nrl-/-Arr4-/-, and Nrl-/-Arr1-/-Arr4-/- mice with photopic electroretinography (ERG) to assess light adaptation and retinal responses, immunoblot and immunohistochemical localization analysis to measure retinal expression levels of M- and S-opsin, and optokinetic tracking (OKT) to measure the visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. RESULTS. Study results indicated that Nrl-/- and Nrl-/-Arr4-/- mice light adapted normally, while Nrl-/-Arr1-/- and Nrl-/-Arr1-/-Arr4-/- mice did not. Photopic ERG a-wave, bwave, and flicker amplitudes followed a general pattern in which Nrl-/-Arr4-/- amplitudes were higher than the amplitudes of Nrl-/-, while the amplitudes of Nrl-/-Arr1-/- and Nrl-/-Arr1-/-Arr4-/- were lower. All three visual arrestin knockouts had faster implicit times than Nrl-/- mice. M-opsin expression is lower when ARR1 is not expressed, while Sopsin expression is lower when ARR4 is not expressed. Although M-opsin expression is mislocalized throughout the photoreceptor cells, S-opsin is confined to the outer segments in all genotypes. Contrast sensitivity is decreased when ARR4 is not expressed, while visual acuity was normal except in Nrl-/-Arr1-/-Arr4-/-. CONCLUSIONS. Based on the opposite visual phenotypes in an all-cone retina in the Nrl-/-Arr1-/- and Nrl-/-Arr4-/- mice,we conclude that ARR1 and ARR4 perform unique modulatory roles in cone photoreceptors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7618-7628
Number of pages11
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Issue number13
StatePublished - Dec 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.


  • Cone function
  • Cone opsins
  • NRL knockout
  • Visual arrestins


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