Methionine sulfoxide reductase A (MSRA) protects proteins from oxidation, and also helps remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) by recovering antioxidant enzymes inactivated by oxidation. Although its functions have been investigated extensively, little is known about the mechanism by which MSRA is regulated. Arrest defective 1 (ARD1) is an enzyme that catalyzes not only N-terminal acetylation as a cotranslational modification but also lysine acetylation as a posttranslational modification. ARD1, which is expressed in most cell types, is believed to participate in diverse biological processes, but its roles are poorly understood. Given that MSRA was hunted in a yeast two-hybrid screen with ARD1 as the bait, we here investigated whether ARD1 is a novel regulator of MSRA. ARD1 was shown to interact with and acetylate MSRA in both cells and test tubes. It specifically acetylated the K49 residue of MSRA, and by doing so repressed the enzymatic function of MSRA. ARD1 increased cellular levels of ROS, carbonylated proteins and DNA breaks under oxidative stress. Moreover, it promoted cell death induced by pro-oxidants, which was attenuated in MSRA-deficient cells. When mice were exposed to hyperoxic conditions for 2 days, their livers and kidneys were injured and protein carbonylation was increased. The oxidative tissue injury was more severe in ARD1 transgenic mice than in their wild-type littermates. In conclusion, ARD1 has a crucial role in the cellular response to oxidative stress as a bona fide regulator of MSRA. ARD1 is a potential target for ameliorating oxidative injury or for potentiating ROS-producing anticancer agents.
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