Since MXenes (a new family of two-dimensional materials) were first produced in 2011, they have become very attractive nanomaterials due to their unique properties and the range of potential industrial applications. Numerous recent studies have discussed the environmental applications of different MXenes in adsorption, catalysis, and membranes. Only a limited number of MXene-based membrane studies have been published to date, and most have discussed only specific MXenes (i.e., Ti3C2Tx), a small number of solutes (e.g., dyes and inorganic salts), and laboratory-scale short-term experiments under limited water-quality and operational conditions. In addition, to our knowledge, there has been no review of MXene-membrane studies. It is therefore essential to assess the current status of understanding of the performance of these membranes in liquid separation and water purification. Here, a comprehensive literature review is conducted to summarize the current preparation techniques for MXene-based membranes and their applications, particularly in terms of environmental and industrial applications (e.g., water treatment and organic solvent filtration), and to direct future research by identifying gaps in our present understanding. In particular, this review focuses on several key factors, including the effects of preparation techniques on membrane properties, operational conditions, and compound properties that influence liquid separation during MXene-based membrane filtration.
- Liquid separation
- Water purification