N-Stearoyl-phytosphingosine (SPS) and 4-hydroxysphinganine (phytosphingosine, PS), which are sphingolipids frequently found in mammalian skin, plants, and yeast, have been used as ingredients in cosmetics. In mice, treatment with SPS and PS inhibited histamine-induced scratching behavior and vascular permeability. These agents inhibited the expression of the allergic cytokines, IL-4 and TNF-α, and the activation of the transcription factors, NF-κB and c-jun, in histamine-stimulated skin tissues. These agents also showed potent anti-histamine effects in the Magnus test using guinea pig ileum. Based on these results, SPS and PS may improve scratching behavioral reactions in skin by regulating the action of histamine and the activation of the transcription factors NF-κB and c-jun.
- Scratching behavior