Anti-inflammatory mechanism of ginseng saponins in activated microglia

Jin Sun Park, Eun Mi Park, Dong Hyun Kim, Kangsik Jung, Ji Sun Jung, Eun Jung Lee, Jin Won Hyun, Jihee Lee Kang, Hee Sun Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

134 Scopus citations


In the present study, we investigated the effect of ginseng extract (KRG) and total saponins (GTS) on microglial activation. KRG and GTS inhibited LPS-induced expression of iNOS, MMP-9 and proinflammatory cytokines in microglial cells. Suppression of microglial activation by ginseng was also observed in the mouse brain inflamed by LPS. Furthermore, KRG and GTS significantly suppressed NF-κB and MAP kinase activities, which are upstream signaling molecules in inflammation. Among the individual ginsenosides tested, Rh2, Rh3 and compound K significantly inhibited LPS-induced iNOS and cytokine expressions. Therefore, the inhibition of microglial activation by ginseng saponins may a good potential therapeutic modality for neurodegenerative diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)40-49
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Neuroimmunology
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - 30 Apr 2009

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by a grant (2007) from the Korean Society of Ginseng funded by the Korea Ginseng Cooperation.


  • Cytokine
  • Ginseng saponin
  • Microglia
  • Signaling pathway
  • iNOS


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