Epilepsy is a complex and multifactorial neurodegenerative disease described by recurrent seizures. Oxidative stress and dysregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) are critical factors for the development of epilepsy. Daidzin is well-known for its effective anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential for centuries. The present study was focused on exploring the anti-epileptic potential of daidzin in the pentylenetetrazole-induced mice model. Daidzin (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg) was administered in the acute study and the dose was optimized. Pretreatment with daidzin remarkably reduced the severity of epileptogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, chronic epilepsy was induced in mice by administration of PTZ (35 mg/kg, i.p) every alternative day for 21 days. Results demonstrated that daidzin significantly prevented epileptogenesis and reversed histopathological changes in the hippocampus. It remarkably improved antioxidant (glutathione, glutathione sulfotransferase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase) levels while decreased MDA (malondialdehyde) and nitrite production in the brain. It remarkably improved the expressions of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and BDNF while reduced the expression of VEGF. It remarkably prevented the neuronal apoptosis in the brain tissue. Additionally, spectroscopic analysis such as FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) revealed that daidzin remarkably prevented PTZ-induced protein damage. HPLC-UV spectrophotometry results demonstrated that there was no peak of aglycone daidzin (metabolite) in the brain sample which specify that the anticonvulsant effect of the compound is due to its direct entry into the brain tissue. Moreover, the molecular docking results showed that daidzin possesses a better binding affinity for ALDH2, estrogen receptor-β, P13k, AKT2, mTORC1, and HIF-1-α proteins. Taken together, the results of the present study showed that daidzin has remarkable neuroprotective and anti-epileptic properties through modulation of oxidative stress, BDNF/VEGF, and apoptotic signaling in the brain tissue of PTZ-kindled mice.
- Oxidative stress