This study determines the optimal extraction conditions for the subcritical-water extraction (SWE) of anthocyanin from blueberries and chokeberries and compares the performance using conventional extraction methods. SWE is carried out under different conditions of extraction temperature (110◦C, 130◦C, 150◦C, 170◦C, 190◦C, and 200◦C), extraction time (1, 3, 5, and 10 min), and solvent pH (water and 1% citric acid). The solubility and stability of anthocyanin from blueberries and chokeberries influences the optimal condition for SWE. The presence of more methoxy and hydroxyl functional groups in the basic skeleton of anthocyanin will result in a lower solubility at a high temperature. Water at a higher temperature exhibits a better dissociation reaction, and a solvent has a lower pH at a higher temperature. One percent citric acid is used to reduce the pH of the solvent, which increases the extraction efficiency of anthocyanin in a subcritical water state.
- Anthocyanin structure
- Subcritical-water extraction (SWE)