The unique physicochemical and localized surface plasmon resonance assets of gold nanorods (GNRs) have offered combined cancer treatments with real-time diagnosis by integrating diverse theragnostic modalities into a single nanoplatform. In this work, a unique multifunctional nanohybrid material based on GNRs was designed for in vitro and in vivo tumor imaging along with synergistic and combinatorial therapy of tumor. The hybrid material with size less than 100 nm was achieved by embedding indocyanine green (ICG) on mesoporous silica-coated GNRs with further wrapping of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and then attached with doxorubicin (DOX) and polyethylene glycol. The nanohybrid unveiled noteworthy stability and competently protected the embedded ICG from further aggregation, photobleaching, and nucleophilic attack by encapsulation of GNRs-ICG with rGO. Such combination of GNRs-ICG with rGO and DOX served as a real-time near-infrared (NIR) contrast imaging agent for cancer diagnosis. The hybrid material exhibits high NIR absorption property along with three destined capabilities, such as, nanozymatic activity, photothermal activity, and an excellent drug carrier for drug delivery. The integrated properties of the nanohybrid were then utilized for the triple mode of combined therapeutics of tumor cells, through synergistic catalytic therapy and chemotherapy with combinatorial photothermal therapy to achieve the maximum cancer killing efficiency. It is assumed that the assimilated multimodal imaging and therapeutic capability in single nanoparticle platform is advantageous for future practical applications in cancer diagnosis, therapy, and molecular imaging.