A method has been developed to access erythro-2,3-diols via Sharpless's asymmetric dihydroxylation reaction. Thus, a TBDMS-protected (E)-allylic alcohol is dihydroxylated and the resulting threo-2,3-diol is converted to the cyclic sulfate. Upon desilylation, this compound undergoes a Payne-type rearrangement. Nucleophilic epoxide-opening then provides an erythro-2,3-diol. The conversions from the cyclic sulfate to the diol product are performed in a single reaction vessel. Due to the irreversible nature of the Payne-type rearrangement, this process is easy to perform and completely regioselective independent of the substrate structures. Also, being performed in THF, the process is compatible with a variety of nucleophiles, including thiolates, -N3, -OAc, -CN, halides as well as carbon nucleophiles and hydride.