Age-integrated artificial intelligence framework for sleep stage classification and obstructive sleep apnea screening

Chaewon Kang, Sora An, Hyeon Jin Kim, Maithreyee Devi, Aram Cho, Sungeun Hwang, Hyang Woon Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Introduction: Sleep is an essential function to sustain a healthy life, and sleep dysfunction can cause various physical and mental issues. In particular, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the most common sleep disorders and, if not treated in a timely manner, OSA can lead to critical problems such as hypertension or heart disease.
Methods: The first crucial step in evaluating individuals’ quality of sleep and diagnosing sleep disorders is to classify sleep stages using polysomnographic (PSG) data including electroencephalography (EEG). To date, such sleep stage scoring has been mainly performed manually via visual inspection by experts, which is not only a time-consuming and laborious process but also may yield subjective results. Therefore, we have developed a computational framework that enables automatic sleep stage classification utilizing the power spectral density (PSD) features of sleep EEG based on three different learning algorithms: support vector machine, k-nearest neighbors, and multilayer perceptron (MLP). In particular, we propose an integrated artificial intelligence (AI) framework to further inform the risk of OSA based on the characteristics in automatically scored sleep stages. Given the previous finding that the characteristics of sleep EEG differ by age group, we employed a strategy of training age-specific models (younger and older groups) and a general model and comparing their performance.
Results: The performance of the younger age-specific group model was similar to that of the general model (and even higher than the general model at certain stages), but the performance of the older age-specific group model was rather low, suggesting that bias in individual variables, such as age bias, should be considered during model training. Our integrated model yielded an accuracy of 73% in sleep stage classification and 73% in OSA screening when MLP algorithm was applied, which indicates that patients with OSA could be screened with the corresponding accuracy level only with sleep EEG without respiration-related measures.
Discussion: The current outcomes demonstrate the feasibility of AI-based computational studies that when combined with advances in wearable devices and relevant technologies could contribute to personalized medicine by not only assessing an individuals’ sleep status conveniently at home but also by alerting them to the risk of sleep disorders and enabling early intervention.
Original languageAmerican English
Article number10.3389/fnins.2023.1059186/full
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalFrontiers in Neuroscience
Issue number6
StatePublished - 14 Jun 2023


Dive into the research topics of 'Age-integrated artificial intelligence framework for sleep stage classification and obstructive sleep apnea screening'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this