The detection of low stratus and fog (LSF) at dawn remains limited because of their optical features and weak solar radiation. LSF could be better identified by simultaneous observations of two geostationary satellites from different viewing angles. The present study developed an advanced dual‐satellite method (DSM) using FY‐4A and Himawari‐8 for LSF detection at dawn in terms of probability indices. Optimal thresholds for identifying the LSF from the spectral tests in DSM were determined by the comparison with ground observations of fog and clear sky in/around Japan between April to November of 2018. Then the validation of these thresholds was carried out for the same months of 2019. The DSM essentially used two traditional single‐satellite tests for daytime such as the 0.65‐μm reflectance (R0.65), and the brightness temperature difference between 3.7 μm and 11 μm (BTD3.7–11); in addition to four more tests such as Himawari‐8 R0.65 and BTD13.5–8.5, the dual‐satellite stereoscopic difference in BTD3.7–11 (ΔBTD3.7–11), and that in the Normalized Difference Snow Index (ΔNDSI). The four were found to show very high skill scores (POD: 0.82 ± 0.04; FAR, 0.10 ± 0.04). The radiative transfer simulation supported optical characteristics of LSF in observations. The LSF probability indices (average POD: 0.83, FAR: 0.10) were constructed by a statistical combination of the four to derive the five‐class probability values of LSF occurrence in a grid. The indices provided more details and useful results in LSF spatial distribution, compared to the single satellite observations (i.e., R0.65 and/or BTD3.7−11) of either LSF or no LSF. The present DSM could apply for remote sensing of environmental phenomena if the stereoscopic viewing angle between two satellites is appropriate.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIT) (No. 2019R1F1A1059984).
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Dual satellite method
- Low stratus