This study aimed to investigate the association between adolescent overweight and obesity and PTC risk in adulthood. We conducted a case-control study in the Republic of Korea with 1,549 PTC patients and 15,490 controls individually matched for age and sex. We estimated body mass index (BMI) at age 18 years from self-reported weight at this age. Compared with BMI < 23.0 at age 18 years, BMI ≥ 25.0 at age 18 years was associated with higher PTC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 4.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.57, 5.22). The association between BMI ≥ 25.0 at age 18 years and PTC risk was stronger among men (OR = 6.65, 95% CI: 4.78, 9.27) than among women (OR = 3.49, 95% CI: 2.74, 4.43), and stronger among individuals with current BMI ≥ 25.0 (OR = 8.21, 95% CI: 6.34, 10.62) than among those with current BMI < 25.0 (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.49, 3.27). Among PTC patients, BMI ≥ 25.0 at age 18 years was associated with extra-thyroidal extension and T stage ≥2, but not with N stage ≥1 or BRAFV600E mutation. Adolescent overweight and obesity was associated with higher risk of PTC in adulthood. Our results emphasise the importance of weight management in adolescence to decrease the PTC risk.